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名词的数
更新:2010-12-04 21:28 作者:ihome 来源:未知 点击:1 次  

   可数名词有单数和复数两种形式。这和汉语不同,比如,在汉语中,我们说一个苹果,那就是一个苹果,没什么特殊变化。你要说三个苹果,只需把“一”换成“三”就可以了。而在英语中,一个苹果是one apple,三个苹果是 three apples,不仅数量词变化了,名词也有相应的变化。下面我们就将名词变复数的规则分为规则变化和不规则变化。 第一部分:规则变化 情况
构成法
读音
例词
一般情况(包括以e结尾的名词)
加-s
-s在清辅音[p][t][k] [f]后读[s]
在浊辅音和元音后读[z]
在辅音[s][z][d ]后读[iz]
口诀:清清浊浊元浊
Cups, cats, cakes, roofs, flags, keys, faces
以s, x, ch, sh结尾
加-es
在[s][z][][t]后读[iz]
Classes, boxes, watches, brushes
以辅音 y结尾
变y为i,加es
读[z]
Cities, countries, studies
以元音 y结尾
加 -s
读[z]
Boys, rays, days
有人还把以下两个加入了名词有规则变复数的行列:
情况
构成法
读音
例词
以o 结尾
加-es
读[z]
Heroes, tomatoes, potatoes, Negroes
加-s
读[z]
Bamboos, radios, zoos, photos, pianos
以f, fe结尾
变f, fe为v,再加-es
读[vz]
Leaf-leaves
Life-lives
Wife-wives
Thief-thieves
Half-halves
Knife-knives
Wolf-wolves
Self-selves
Loaf-loaves
加-s
读[s]
Roofs, proofs, chiefs, beliefs, gulfs
第二部分:不规则变化
  我们经常会看到有些名词变复数时并没有遵循上述规则。这就是名词的不规则变化。还有一些名词,单复数是同一个形式的。不过,我们还是可以通过一些比较,发现其中的一些奥妙。以下我将为大家讲讲名词的不规则变化。
一、有些名词中保存了英语中古旧的复数形式,如:
man-men woman-women
tooth-teeth foot-feet
child-children goose-geese
mouse-mice ox-oxen
二、有些是外来词,仍保有原来的复数形式,如:
Phenomenon-phenomena(现象)
Formula-formulae(公式)
Thesis-theses(论文)
Basis-bases(基础)
Analysis-analyses(分析)
Criterion-criteria(标准)
Crisis-crises(危机)
Appendix-appendices(附录)
三、部分单词的复数形式不变。
例:fish→fish; sheep→sheep; cattle→cattle; deer→deer; salmon→salmon, means→means
四、compound nouns,这类复数词是以主要的名词来表示
例:daughter-in-law→daughters-in-law 媳妇; father-in-law→fathers-in-law岳父  
man-of-war→men-of-war兵舰; maid-servant→maid-servants  
step-son→step-sons晚子; son-in-law→sons-in-law.
但是,也有些合成名词,特别是由man和woman构成的合成名词,里面所含的成分,全都要变为复数,如:
Man-servant-men-servants,woman doctor-women doctors等
五、有些名词经常是带着-s词尾的,但通常都作单数看待,如:
Phonetics(语音学),physics(物理学),optics(光学),politics(政治),news(新闻)等。
六、另一些名词则以复数词出现的机会较多
例:bellows风箱; clothes; police; shorts短裤; scissors剪刀; spectacles眼镜; shears大剪刀,trousers长裤,wages工资,belongings所有物, surroundings环境,savings储蓄,findings调查结果,arms武器,clothes衣服,stairs楼梯,等
七、另外还有一些名词,其复数形式有时可表示特别意思,
例:goods货物,waters水域,fishes(各种)鱼,papers文件,证件,greens青菜,manners礼貌,ruins废墟,troops军队,looks外貌,times时代,等
第三部分:不可数名词的计量方法
(1)一般用“数字 of 计量单位 名词”表示,(注意:当数字大于一时,表示计量单位的名词可以有复数形式)。如:
a piece of news 一则新闻 a piece of meat 一块肉 a glass of wine一杯酒 two bowls of rice 两碗米 a sum of money 一笔钱 five bags of flour 一袋面粉 a drop of water 一滴水 three bottles of milk 三瓶牛奶 two pieces of advice 两条建议
(2)用much/some/ a little/ little/ a lot of/ plenty of 不可数名词
练习题:
1、 All the people at the conference are ______.
a. mathematic teachers c. mathematics teacher
b. mathematics teachers d. mathematic’s teachers (C)
2、All the ______ in the hospital got a rise last month.
a. women doctors c. woman doctors
b. women doctor d. woman doctor (a)
3、---Are there any ________ on the farm
---Yes, there are some.
A. horse B. duck C. chicken D. sheep (D)
4、--- They are thirsty. Will you please give them ______
  --- Certainly.
 A. some bottles of waters B. some bottles of water
 C. some bottle of water D. some bottle of waters (B)
5、Mike hurt one of his ______ in the accident yesterday.
 A. tooth B. feet C. hand D. ear (B)
6、There is some _______ on the plate.
 A. cakes B. meat C. potato D. pears (B)
7、The little baby has two _______ already.
 A. tooth B. tooths C. teeth D. teeths (C)
8、We need some more____. Can you go and get some, please
A. potato B. potatos C. potatoes D. potatoe (C)
9、Please remember to give the horse some tree___.
A. leafs B. leaves C. leaf D. leave (B)
10、He gave us____ on how to keep fit.
A. some advices B. some advice C. an advice D. a advice (B)
11、Please pass me _____.
A. two glass of water B. two glasses of waters
C. two glasses of water D. two glass water (C)
12、There are a lot of _______ down there but hardly any _______.
A. sheeps, people B.sheep, people C. sheeps, peoples D. sheep, peoples (B)
13、This table is made of __________.
A. many glass B. glasses C. some glasses D. glass (D)
14、______ can get a better view of the game than the participants.
A. Looker-on B. Lookers-on C. Looker-ons D. Lookers-ons (B)
15、Some ______ are flying kites near the river.
A. child B. boy C. boys D. childs (C)
16、Mr. Smith always has ________ to tell us.
A. some good pieces of news B. some pieces of good news
C. some good piece of news D. some piece of good news (B)
17、Twelve _______ were hurt, but no _________ were lost in that accident.
A. person; life B. people; lives C. peoples; lives D. persons; life (B)
18、In the view of the foreign experts, there wasn’t ____ oil here.
A. much B. lots of C. a great deal of D. many (A)
19、The police investigated those _____ about the accident.
A. stander-by C. standers-by
B. stander-bys D. standers-bys (B)
20、Generally there are ______ television programs for children on Saturday.
A. little B. much C. a large number of D. a large amount of (C)

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