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英语独立主格结构讲解与练习
更新:2010-08-19 12:41 作者:ihome 来源:未知 点击:1 次  

 

一、独立主格结构的概念及基本构成形式
独立主格结构(the absolute structure)是由名词或代词加上分词或分词短语构成的一种独立结构,用于修饰整个句子,而不是一个词或词组。独立主格结构中的名词或代词与其后的分词或分词短语构成逻辑上的主谓关系。这种结构与主句不发生句法上的联系,独立主格结构的位置相当灵活,可置于主句前、主句末或主句中,常由逗号将其与主句分开。需特别注意的是,独立主格结构与主句之间不能使用任何连接词。例如:
1)Night enshrouding the earth,nobody could make out what the dark mass was from a distance.
(黑夜笼罩大地,谁也看不清远处黑压压的一片是什么东西。)
2)He lay at full length upon his stomach,his head resting upon his left forearm.
(他的脊背朝天,四肢伸展,头枕着左臂,直挺挺地趴伏着。)
3)The coward was backing,his face being deathly pale,toward another room.(那个胆小鬼向另一个房间退去,脸色煞白。)
独立主格结构多用于书面语,尤其是描述性语言中,在口语和非正式文体中,一般用从句或两个句子来代替。例如,上述例句可变为:
1)Because night enshrouded the earth, nobody could make out what the dark mass was from a distance.
2)He lay at full length upon his stomach.His head rested upon his left forearm.
3)The coward was backing toward another room.His face was deathly pale.

二、独立主格结构的特殊构成形式
独立主格结构除上述基本构成形式,即名词/代词+分词(短语)外,还有如下特殊构成形式。
1.名词+介词短语
1)The mayor of Hiroshima strode at a leisure pace toward the puzzled journalist,a bunch of flowers in his hands.(广岛市市长双手捧着一束鲜花,迈着方步走向那个迷惑不解的记者。)
2)Every afternoon a very old woman hobbled past the ramshackle house,a vast load of firewood on her back.(每天下午,一个背着一大背柴禾的老妇人都会从那间东倒西歪的房屋前蹒跚着走过。)
2.名词+形容词(短语)
1)The Trojans asleep,the Greek soldiers crept out of the hollow wooden horse.(特洛伊人睡着了,于是希腊士兵从中空的木马里悄悄爬了出来。)
2)The wretched boy,who has recently been dragged from the forest to scrub floors in the barracks,is now sweeping away the snow,his hands numb with cold.(那个可怜的小男孩最近刚刚从森林中被抓进兵营里打扫地板,现在他正在扫雪,手都冻麻了。)
3.名词+副词
1)This little excitement over,noth- ing was to be done but to return to a steadfast gaze at my mute companion.(一阵小小的兴奋过后,除了再去死死地盯着我的哑伴外,别无它事可干了。)
2)This intermezzo over,he found himself surrounded by several stunning,
porcelain-faced Japanese women in kimonos.(这曲子过后,他发现自己身处几位穿着和服并且有着娇好面容的日本女人的包围之中。)
此外,with常常用在独立主格结构前,构成介词短语作状语。这种用法中的with不表达什么意义,因而常可省略。请看例句:
1)With a revolver in his right hand, Johnny hurled his muscular body against the door and smashed it down with a crash.(约翰尼右手拿着zuolunshouqiang,健壮的身体猛扑在门上,轰隆一声把门撞开了。)
2)The traffic inched along,with horns honking.(汽车缓慢地向前挪着,喇叭声不断响着。)

三、独立主格结构的用法
独立主格结构在句中一般作状语,表示时间、条件、原因、伴随状况等。
1.作时间状语
1)My shoes removed,I entered a low-ceilinged room,treading cautiously on the soft tatami matting.=After my shoes were removed, I entered a low-ceilinged room,treading cautiously on the soft tatami matting.(我脱掉鞋子后,走进一间屋顶很低的房间,小心翼翼地踩在柔软的塌塌米垫子上。)
2)The governor pondering the matter, more strikers gathered across his path.=While the governor was pondering the matter,more strikers gathered across his path.(总督思考这个问题时,更多的罢工工人聚集在他要通过的路上。)
2.作条件状语
1)Weather permitting,they will go on an outing to the beach tomorrow.=If weather permits,they will go on an outing to the beach tomorrow.(如果天气允许的话,他们将在明天组织一次海滨小游。)
2)Such being the case,you have no grounds for dismissing him.=If such is the case,you have no grounds for dismissing him.(如果情况如此的话,你没有理由解聘他。)
3.作原因状语
1)The storm drawing near,the navvy decided to call it a day.=Since the storm was drawing near,the navvy decided to call it a day.(由于暴风雨即将来临,那个挖土小工决定收工。)
2)The Cossack being intent on his stalking,his foot touched the protruding bough that was the trigger.=Because the Cossack was intent on his stalking,his foot touched the protruding bough that was the trigger.(这位哥萨克人只顾专心致志地朝前大步走着,所以一只脚踩上了伸出地面的树枝,那是一个机关的起动装置。)
4.作伴随状语
1)I took my ticket,and marched proudly up the platform,with my cheeses,the people falling back respectfully on either side.=I took my ticket,and marched proudly up the plat- form,with my cheeses,and the people fell back respectfully on either side.(我拿着车票还有我的奶酪,雄赳赳气昂昂地跨步走向月台。人们似乎很尊敬我,纷纷向两边退去。)
2)He would appear in the doorway,gray fedora pulled low over his face,his eyes sweeping the room for any sign of trouble.= He would appear in the doorway.A gray fedora was pulled low over his face,and his eyes swept the room for any sign of trouble.(他常常出现在门廊里,一顶灰色浅顶软呢帽遮住大半个脸,眼睛扫过整个房屋,寻找滋事的迹象。)

四、独立主格结构常见出题形式及解题策略
独立主格结构是一常考项目,在各级各类考试中多以语法结构填空形式出现。例如:
1)All flights        ,we decided to take a greyhound.
A.were canceled B.had been canceled
C.having canceled  D.having been canceled
2)The production          steadily,the factory needs an ever-increasing supply of raw material.
A.has gone up B.is going up
C.having gone up D.being gone up
此类题型的解题策略可以概括为“结构分析法”,即首先分析句子结构,判断句子缺少的成分,同时注意主句与其他部分之间有无连接词,是否用逗号隔开。若有逗号而无连接词,则可对选项部分作如下初步判断:1)选项部分可能会构成状语从句或非限制性定语从句(但二者必须由从属连词或关系代词、关系副词引导);
2)选项部分可能会构成起状语作用的非谓语动词短语(但非谓语动词作状语时其逻辑主语通常为主句的主语);
3)选项部分可能会构成起状语作用的独立主格结构(独立主格结构有自己的主语,并可扩展为状语从句或独立句子)。初步判断后,即可联系句子,对照选项,作出选择。
上述例题1)中的选项A和B与All flights构成了句子,但该句没有任何从属连词、关系代词或关系副词引导,与主句之间也无连接词,因而是错误的,应排除。选项C和D与All flights都可构成独立主格结构,作原因状语,但根据题意,应选D,因为“班机”是“被取消”的。
同样,例题2)中的选项A和B与名词 the production构成了句子,但该句无连接词连接两个句子,因而应排除。选项C和D与 the production都可构成独立主格结构,作原因状语,但根据题意,“产量在稳步增长”,在逻辑上是主谓关系,应用主动语态,所以应选C。
此外,独立主格结构也时常见于其他诸如Cloze Test等题型中,并能广泛运用于写作和翻译之中。可见,掌握了独立主格结构对于学生提高综合应试能力是大有裨益的。

Choose the best from the four choices.
1.Ford tried dividing the labor,each worker           a separate task.
A.assigning B.assigned C.was assigned D.would be assigned
2.The lecture           ,he left his seat so quietly that no one complained that his leaving disturbed the speaker.
A.began B.beginning  C.having begun D.being beginning
3.Such           the case ,there are no grounds to justify your complaints.
A.being B.is  C.was D.to be
4.Darkness           in,the young people lingered on merrymaking.
A.set B.setting  C.has set D.was set
5.With all factors           ,we think this program may excel all the others in achieving the goal.
A.being considered  B.considering C.considered   D.are considered
6.A new technique           ,the yields as a whole increased by 20 percent.
A.to have been worked out  B.having worked out C.working out  D.having been worked out
7.On the top was the clear outline of a great wolf sitting still,ears           ,alert,listening.
A.pointed B.pointing  C.are pointed D.are pointing
8.Walter offered us a lift when he was leaving the office ,but our work           ,we declined the offer.
A.not being finished   B.not having finished C.had not been finished D.was not finished
9.There are various kinds of metals ,each           its own properties.
A.has B.had   C.to have D.having
10.The article opens and closes with descriptions of two news reports,each           one major point in contrast with the other.
A.makes B.made  C.is to make D.making

Key:1—5 BCABC  6—10 DAADD

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