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单词后缀
更新:2010-08-18 22:15 作者:ihome 来源:未知 点击:1 次  

 英语的后缀具有很强的语法作用,加在词根上构成派生词,一般不改变词根的基本意义,而是改变词性。常用的后缀通常可以分为四个类型:

  1. 名词后缀

  -er/-or; -ar; -ant; -tion; -ing; -ment; -al; -ure; -ese; -ian; -ness; -ism; -ist; -y; -(i)ty; -th

  (1) 动词加后缀-er; -or; -ar; -ant变为名词,表示“动作执行人”。

  e.g. teach→teacher play→player dream→dreamer employ→employer visit→visitor invent→inventor direct→director translate→translator lie→liar beg→beggar assist→assistant inhabit→inhabitant apply→applicant

  (2) 动词加-tion; -ing; -ment; -al; -ure 变为相应的名词形式,表示“行为的过程、结果”。

  e.g. organize→organization inform→information congratulate→congratulation

  greet→greeting live→living save→saving move→movement amuse→amusement entertain→entertainment arrive→arrival refuse→refusal

  survive→survival fail→failure

  depart→departure press→pressure

  (3)名词加后缀-ese; -ian; -ist,表示“……地方的人”,“……地方的”。

  e.g. China→Chinese Japan→Japanese Vietnam→Vietnamese

  Australia→Australian Canada→Canadian music→musician piano→pianist violin→violinist science→scientist

  (4)形容词加后缀-ness; -ism; -ist; -y; -(i)ty; -th变为名词。

  e.g. sick→sickness foolish→foolishness happy→happiness

  加-ism; -ist表示“……主义”“……主义者”。

  material→materialism natural→naturalism material→materialist

  natural→naturalist difficult→difficulty honest→honesty equal→equality

  safe→safety true→truth dead→death

  2. 动词后缀

  -ify; -en; -ise (-ize)

  (1)形容词加后缀-ify; -en; -ise (-ize)变为动词,表示“使成为……”。

  e.g. simple→simplify pure→purify intense→intensify quick→quicken

  wide→widen sharp→sharpen

  dramatic→dramatize modern→modernize

  civil→civilize

  (2)名词加-ify; -en; -ise (-ize)后缀变为动词, 表示“使成为……”,“变为……状态”。

  e.g. beauty→beautify class→classify sign→signify length→lengthen

  strength→strengthen organ→organize

  system→systemize sympathy→sympathize

  3. 形容词后缀

  -able; -ible; -ful; -ous; -ent; -ant; -y; -ly; -ive; -al;-an; -ern; -ish; -some

  (1)动词加后缀-able; -ible; -ful; -ous; -ent; -ant; -y变为形容词,表示“可……的”,“能……的”。

  e.g. move→movable suit→suitable change→changeable sense→sensible flex→flexible use→useful care→careful

  envy→envious vary→various depend→dependent consist→consistent assist→assistant ascend→ascendant wind→windy snow→snowy sleep→sleepy

  act→active pass→passive

  (2)名词加后缀-al; -an; -ern; -ly; -ish; -some变为形容词, 表示“有某种特征的”,“属于……的”。

  e.g. music→musical medicine→medical America→American Europe→European east→eastern west→western north→northern man→manly year→yearly fool→foolish Turkey→Turkish

  burden→burdensome trouble→troublesome

  4. 副词后缀

  多数形容词加-ly变为相应的副词。

  e.g. careful→carefully beautiful→beautifully real→really

  一些表示方向的形容词加-wise; -ward(s)变为相应的副词。

  e.g. clock→clockwise other→otherwise up→upward(s) down→downward(s) back→backward(s)

  另外,还应注意几个问题:

  1. 有的后缀仅仅改变词义,不改变词性

  e.g. friend (朋友)→friendship (友谊) book (书)→booklet (小册子) hard (努力地)→hardly (几乎不) king (国王)→kingdom (王国)

  2. 后缀-ee

  后缀-ee与-er; -or虽然都是名词后缀表示“……的人”,但是-ee既可以表示被动的“动作承受者”,也可以表示主动的“动作发出者”,而-er; -or通常具有主动意义。-ee加在一些及物动词后面构成名词,表示为“动作承受者”。

  e.g. trainee(接受训练者) interview-

  ee(被采访者) appointee(受任命者)nominee (被提名者) payee (收款人) detainee(被拘留者) employee(雇员)

  -ee加在一些不及物动词后构成名词,表示为“动作发出者”。

  e.g. returnee(归国者) refugee(难民) divorcee(离婚者) escapee(逃亡者)

  3. 以-ly结尾的形容词和副词

  形容词加-ly构成副词是常见的构词方法,但并非所有的以-ly结尾的单词都是副词。这些词中有的是形容词,也有的既是形容词也是副词。副词中后缀-ly前面的部分也并非都是形容词。有的-ly前是名词,有的-ly前是形容词。现将这些用法归纳如下:

  (1)表示人的名词加-ly构成形容词

  e.g. manly (男子气的) womanly(女性的)masterly(精巧的) scholarly(学者气质的)motherly(母亲的)fatherly(父亲的)

  (2)名词或形容词加-ly构成形容词

  e.g. orderly (有秩序的) godly(神圣的) sickly (有病的) kindly(和善的)

  (3)表示时间的名词加-ly构成形容词或副词

  e.g. hourly(每小时的/每小时地)monthly(每月的/每月地) daily(每天的/每天地) minutely(详细地) yearly(每年的/每年地)timely(及时的)

  下面让我们来做练习。

  一、请用括号中所给词的正确形式填空。

  1. We are all from , so we are and we speak . (Japan)

  2. Two (pass by) came up to ask for help but none of us could be able to help them.

  3. The students at colleges or universities are making (prepare) for the coming New Year.

  4. The Nazi kept a great many (prison) of war in their concentration camps.

  5. Numerous materials are available to today’s so they can always different clothes with different styles. (design)

  6. The boy tried hard and there has been much in his work. (improve)

  7. To make more people is an important task for every country and no country can afford to neglect (educate)

  8. He has been depressed recently because he has lost his entire wage and (save) at card.

  9. (happy) and (sad) are always interwoven in our life and this is what the real life is.

  10. There are a lot of (refuge) wandering in the downtown of this city which really annoys the natives.

  11. (selfish) is one of her many faults.

  12. We are (permit) to enter the computer room to listen to the music and play games.

  13. The weather here is really (change). Yesterday morning it was sunny but in the afternoon it suddenly rained and we were all soaked to the skin.

  14. Mary writes slightly more (careful) than Mike.

  15. To realize four (modernize) has been our goal for many years.

  16. My sister or my brother is (like) to be at home.

  17. What was done to the environment really (beauty) the city pretty much.

  二、根据句意用适当的词填空。

  1. Can you describe the car? The police need a full in order to find it.

  2. His furniture design was original. Because of its , it won an award.

  3. That comedian loves to exaggerate. His humor is based on of his misfortunes.

  4. We can extend your time for two weeks, but no further will be allowed.

  5. The Senator stated that he would not seek re-election. The newspapers printed his on the first page.

  6. The boy had no friends there. His made him unhappy.

  7. Students have to do eye exercises at school every day. This practice is really beneficial for them.

  8. He tried hard to behave like a gentleman. But sometimes he forgot his habits.

  9. Every hour in this station there is a train. So there is an train service here.

  Key: 一、1. Japan; Japanese; Japanese 2. passers-by 3. preparations

  - 3 -4. prisoners 5. designers design

  6. improvement 7. educated; education 8. savings 9. Happiness; sadness

  10. refugees 11. Selfishness

  12. permitted 13. changeable

  14. carefully 15. modernizations

  16. likely 17. beautified

  二、1. description 2. originality

  3. exaggeration 4. extension

  5. statement 6. friendlessness

  7. daily 8. gentlemanly 9. hourly

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