-er/-or; -ar; -ant; -tion; -ing; -ment; -al; -ure; -ese; -ian; -ness; -ism; -ist; -y; -(i)ty; -th
(1) 动词加后缀-er; -or; -ar; -ant变为名词，表示“动作执行人”。
e.g. teach→teacher play→player dream→dreamer employ→employer visit→visitor invent→inventor direct→director translate→translator lie→liar beg→beggar assist→assistant inhabit→inhabitant apply→applicant
(2) 动词加-tion; -ing; -ment; -al; -ure 变为相应的名词形式，表示“行为的过程、结果”。
e.g. organize→organization inform→information congratulate→congratulation
greet→greeting live→living save→saving move→movement amuse→amusement entertain→entertainment arrive→arrival refuse→refusal
(3)名词加后缀-ese; -ian; -ist，表示“……地方的人”，“……地方的”。
e.g. China→Chinese Japan→Japanese Vietnam→Vietnamese
Australia→Australian Canada→Canadian music→musician piano→pianist violin→violinist science→scientist
(4)形容词加后缀-ness; -ism; -ist; -y; -(i)ty; -th变为名词。
e.g. sick→sickness foolish→foolishness happy→happiness
material→materialism natural→naturalism material→materialist
natural→naturalist difficult→difficulty honest→honesty equal→equality
safe→safety true→truth dead→death
-ify; -en; -ise (-ize)
(1)形容词加后缀-ify; -en; -ise (-ize)变为动词，表示“使成为……”。
e.g. simple→simplify pure→purify intense→intensify quick→quicken
(2)名词加-ify; -en; -ise (-ize)后缀变为动词， 表示“使成为……”,“变为……状态”。
e.g. beauty→beautify class→classify sign→signify length→lengthen
-able; -ible; -ful; -ous; -ent; -ant; -y; -ly; -ive; -al;-an; -ern; -ish; -some
(1)动词加后缀-able; -ible; -ful; -ous; -ent; -ant; -y变为形容词，表示“可……的”，“能……的”。
e.g. move→movable suit→suitable change→changeable sense→sensible flex→flexible use→useful care→careful
envy→envious vary→various depend→dependent consist→consistent assist→assistant ascend→ascendant wind→windy snow→snowy sleep→sleepy
(2)名词加后缀-al; -an; -ern; -ly; -ish; -some变为形容词, 表示“有某种特征的”,“属于……的”。
e.g. music→musical medicine→medical America→American Europe→European east→eastern west→western north→northern man→manly year→yearly fool→foolish Turkey→Turkish
e.g. careful→carefully beautiful→beautifully real→really
e.g. clock→clockwise other→otherwise up→upward(s) down→downward(s) back→backward(s)
e.g. friend (朋友)→friendship (友谊) book (书)→booklet (小册子) hard (努力地)→hardly (几乎不) king (国王)→kingdom (王国)
后缀-ee与-er; -or虽然都是名词后缀表示“……的人”，但是-ee既可以表示被动的“动作承受者”，也可以表示主动的“动作发出者”，而-er; -or通常具有主动意义。-ee加在一些及物动词后面构成名词，表示为“动作承受者”。
e.g. trainee(接受训练者) interview-
ee(被采访者) appointee(受任命者)nominee (被提名者) payee (收款人) detainee(被拘留者) employee(雇员)
e.g. returnee(归国者) refugee(难民) divorcee(离婚者) escapee(逃亡者)
e.g. manly (男子气的) womanly(女性的)masterly(精巧的) scholarly(学者气质的)motherly(母亲的)fatherly(父亲的)
e.g. orderly (有秩序的) godly(神圣的) sickly (有病的) kindly(和善的)
e.g. hourly(每小时的/每小时地)monthly(每月的/每月地) daily(每天的/每天地) minutely(详细地) yearly(每年的/每年地)timely(及时的)
1. We are all from , so we are and we speak . (Japan)
2. Two (pass by) came up to ask for help but none of us could be able to help them.
3. The students at colleges or universities are making (prepare) for the coming New Year.
4. The Nazi kept a great many (prison) of war in their concentration camps.
5. Numerous materials are available to today’s so they can always different clothes with different styles. (design)
6. The boy tried hard and there has been much in his work. (improve)
7. To make more people is an important task for every country and no country can afford to neglect (educate)
8. He has been depressed recently because he has lost his entire wage and (save) at card.
9. (happy) and (sad) are always interwoven in our life and this is what the real life is.
10. There are a lot of (refuge) wandering in the downtown of this city which really annoys the natives.
11. (selfish) is one of her many faults.
12. We are (permit) to enter the computer room to listen to the music and play games.
13. The weather here is really (change). Yesterday morning it was sunny but in the afternoon it suddenly rained and we were all soaked to the skin.
14. Mary writes slightly more (careful) than Mike.
15. To realize four (modernize) has been our goal for many years.
16. My sister or my brother is (like) to be at home.
17. What was done to the environment really (beauty) the city pretty much.
1. Can you describe the car? The police need a full in order to find it.
2. His furniture design was original. Because of its , it won an award.
3. That comedian loves to exaggerate. His humor is based on of his misfortunes.
4. We can extend your time for two weeks, but no further will be allowed.
5. The Senator stated that he would not seek re-election. The newspapers printed his on the first page.
6. The boy had no friends there. His made him unhappy.
7. Students have to do eye exercises at school every day. This practice is really beneficial for them.
8. He tried hard to behave like a gentleman. But sometimes he forgot his habits.
9. Every hour in this station there is a train. So there is an train service here.
Key： 一、1. Japan; Japanese; Japanese 2. passers-by 3. preparations
- 3 -4. prisoners 5. designers design
6. improvement 7. educated; education 8. savings 9. Happiness; sadness
10. refugees 11. Selfishness
12. permitted 13. changeable
14. carefully 15. modernizations
16. likely 17. beautified
二、1. description 2. originality
3. exaggeration 4. extension
5. statement 6. friendlessness
7. daily 8. gentlemanly 9. hourly