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新概念二册语法总结
更新:2009-02-21 12:28 作者:admin 来源:未知 点击:1 次  
1.         被动语态(二)

will/must/can/would/could/have to be done
have/has been done
must have been done
drive 用法
home/house
2.         介词用法:见书
3.         复习
there be句型
it做为虚主语可以用来表示时间,天气,温度,距离,人或指代一个句子或不定式。
4.     Summary of Unit two
5.         并列句
我们可以将几个简单句连在一起,组成并列句,常用以下连词:
and, but, so, yet, or, both…and, either…or, neither…nor, not only…but …as well, not only…but also
主谓一致:
当主语由and , both…and 连接时,通常用复数谓语.
Both the girls and the boy are his friends.
   当主语由neither… nor, either…or, not only…but also或or 连接时,谓语动词与 nor, or, but also后面的一致,在英语语法中,这被称为就近一致.
Neither he nor I am going to the airport.
Not only Mary but also her parents have gone abroad.
6.         一般现在时的复习,状态动词,标点符号的使用.
以下一些动词很少用与进行时态:
appear(看起来), appreciate(鉴赏), believe(相信), feel(感觉到), forget(忘记), hear(听见), know(知道), like(喜欢), look like(看起来像), notice(注意到), remember(记得), resemble(形似), see(看到), think(认为), understand(理解), have(拥有),love(爱), seem(看起来), show(显示), mind(介意), sound(听起来), hate(讨厌), detest(憎恨), desire(意欲),
引号:
引号位于一行之上,应该在句尾其他标点符号, 如逗号,句号,问好之外.
   引语的第一个词以大写字母开头.
在said, asked, 等词后面用逗号,只有当它们位于句尾时才在它们后面用句号.
当said, asked等词置于引语之间时,句子的后半部分以小写开头.
当一个新的说话人开始讲话时, 要另起一个段落.
7.         复习一般过去时/不规则过去式和过去分词
常用不规则动词过去式和过去分词在英语里约有300多个
put up(搭建), put out(扑灭), put on(穿上), put sb. up(为某人安排住宿), put up with(容忍), put down(抄写), put off(推迟), put away(放好,放到一边去)
8.         现在完成时复习/定语从句(见复合句部分)
l   与现在完成时连用的时间副词:
yet, just, before, recently, lately, ever, never,
so far(迄今为止), up till now(直到现在), up to now(直到现在), since(自从), for a long time(很长时间), in the past/in the last few years(在过去的几年里), these days(目前),
l   某些非延续性动词(动作开始变终止的动词), 在现在完成时中不 能与表示一段时间状语搭配:
例如:die, arrive, join, leave, go, refuse , fail, finish, buy, marry, divorce, awake, buy, borrow, lend, 这些动词并非不能用在现在完成时,而是不能接由for引导的时间状语.但是用在否定句中,非延续动词的现在完成时可以与表示一段时间的状语连用.
Jane has gone away for a month. (wrong)
Jane has been away for a month.(right)
His father has died for two years. (wrong)
His father has been dead for two years.(right)
has gone to (去了某地,指人还在那里), have been to (去过某地, 人已经不在那里了)。
9.         一般过去时对比过去完成时,现在分词/过去分词
refuse/deny, bring/take/fetch, very/too
10.     冠词用法
定冠词用法
(1)特指
(2)地理名词前加定冠词
l           河流the yellow river
l           山脉 the Alps, the Himalayas
l           海峡海湾the Taiwan Straits, the English Channel
(3)由普通名词构成的专有名词前要加定冠词
l           国名及政治组织名the United States, the United Kingdom
l           某些机构学校及建筑名 the British Museum
l           由普通名词构成的报刊杂志名 the New York Times, the Times
零冠词
1.           街名
2.           广场名
3.           车站, 机场, 公园, 桥梁名: Kennedy Airport, Beijing Railway Station, London Bridge
4.           大学名 Yale University, Cambridge University
5.           节日名National Day, May Day, News Years’ Day
6.           多数杂志名 Time, Reader’s Digest
7.           物质名词一般意义 Water boils at 100 degrees. We can not live without air.
8.           抽象名词   Life is short. Art is difficult to appreciate.
1.used to do 用法

Used to do 表示过去常常做某事现在不做了

I used to get up at seven o’clock.

Experience, save, very/too
2.比较级/最高级, 比较状语从句(见复合句-比较状语从句)

A/one的区别
3.介词用法

Passed/past, next/other
4.被动语态总结

一般现在时: is/am/are done
一般过去时: was/were done
现在进行时: is/am/are being done
现在完成时: have/has been done
过去完成时: had been done
一般将来时: will be done
过去将来时: would be done
过去进行时: was/were being done
情态动词: can be done, must be done, could be done, may be done, might be done,
情态动词完成式: can have been done,must have been done,could have been done, may have been done,might have been done,
Call at(拜访某地), call out at(大声喊), call on(拜访某人), call sb up(给某人打电话), call off(取消)
5.主语+谓语(感官动词)+doing表示正在发生的事情,+do 表示已经完成的动作.

So/such
So+adj. /adv.
such+n.
固定用法:so many
6.一般将来时will/be going to do

will/be going to do一般情况下可以相互替换,但是要表示说话人决定做某事或者表示建议,请求, 肯定或不肯定等含义时只能用will.

Watch/look at/follow, solid/firm/stable
7.将来完成时

Hold/look, look forward to(期望), look out(当心), look up (查询,), look sb. up(拜访某人)
8.as if /though+虚拟语气, 过去完成时总结

as if /though 常在描述行为的动词后面使用, act/look/feel/appear/smell/sound, 后面要用虚拟语气

He looks as if he were a king.

Her skin feels as if it were silk.

The song sounds as if it were a sad story.

He looked as if he had never lived in England.



No sooner…than, hardly…when, country/countryside, continuously, continually,

No sooner…than …   与过去完成时连用
I had no sooner come into the room than it began to rain.
The bell had no sooner rung than the game began.
如果no sooner 放在句首, 主句的主谓结构倒装
No sooner had I come into the room than it began to rain.
No sooner had the bell rung than it began to rain.
Hardly…when 几乎没来得及…   与过去完成时连用

He had hardly got the money when the policeman caught him.
I had hardly finished the last question when the exam ended.
如果hardly…when放在句首, 主句的主谓结构倒装
Hardly had he got the money when the policeman caught him.
Hardly had I finished the last question when the exam ended.


9.直接引语变间接引语

1.引语前用that, 口语中可以省略
2.根据句意改变人称
3.时态变化: 一般现在时-一般过去时, 一般过去时-过去完成时, 一般将来时-过去将来时, 现在进行时-过去进行时, 现在完成时-过去完成时, can-could, may-might, must-had to,

4.一些指示代词及表示地点及时间的词

this-that, these-those, now-then, today, tonight-that day, that night, this week-that week, yesterday-the day before, the previous day, last week- the week before, two days ago-two days before(earlier), tomorrow-the next (following) day, next week-the following week, here-there, come, bring-go, take
如果意思上没有必要改变就不用变了,比如在同一天说的话.
She said she would come again tonight.
He said he arrived yesterday morning.
几种特殊的间接引语

n         特殊疑问句, 语序要变为陈述语序
“Where are you going?” he asked.
He asked me where I was going.
n         一般疑问句, 要加if/whether

“Will you come tomorrow?” he asked.
He asked if I would come the next day.
n         祈使句要变为不定式, 所使用的谓语要根据语气来选择
“Stay here,” the policeman said.
The policeman requested him to stay there.
“Close the window, please,” my mother said.
My mother asked me to close the window.
常用的动词: advise, ask, beg, command(命令), order, warn, tell, urge(催促), invite, persuade, remind, forbid
10.虚拟语气在条件句中的用法, make/do

对现在事实的虚拟, if从句中谈论的是想象的情况,主句则推测想象的结果
结构: 主句用过去时, 从句用过去将来时
If you came here earlier, you would catch the train.
If you spent more time on studying, you would get better result.
If I were you, I would accept this offer.
注意: 如果if从句中的动词是be, 那么应该在第一和第三人称单数名词后用 were.
Make/do用法

make conversation(聊天), make the bed(铺床), make a promise(许诺), make trouble(找麻烦), make progress(取得进步), make money(赚钱), make a speech(演讲,讲话), make mistakes(犯错误), make up one’s mind(下定决心)
do one’s best(尽最大努力), do one’s homework(做家庭作业), do a few jobs(做家务), do sb. a favour(帮忙), do work(工作), do exercise(做练习), do shopping(购物), do business(做生意)
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