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基础英语天天学(八十四)
更新:2018-10-09 12:04 作者:davad 来源:未知 点击:1 次  

本课您将学到:feel sorry for(为……感到难过),on the sly(偷偷摸摸)

  在哈佛大学,有一条很大的标语:“请不要随地吐痰,不要乱扔废物”,它是用中文写的,而且只用了中文。难道吐痰是中国人的“专利”?当然不是,今天我们就来聊聊西方也有悠久的吐痰史……

  Spitting was mostly associated(联系) with smoking, both denounced(指责、谴责) by women as bad habits. Every time I saw a spittoon(痰盂), I felt sorry for the poor housewife(家庭主妇) who had to clean it out every day. I also remember that schoolboys would start to spit at the same age as they took to smoking on the sly, just to show what grown-ups and tough guys(硬汉子) they were.

  In the European Middle Ages it was permitted(允许) to spit under the table, but never across it. While standing, one could spit on the ground and immediately rub out(擦掉) the sputum(唾液) with one's foot. Spitting on the floor in 19th-century factories, hospital waiting rooms and barber shops(理发店) was tolerated(可以容忍的). "Where do you want them to spit? In their pockets?" was the attitude.

  So you see, the West has its own history of spitting, which it took time and effort to eradicate(连根拔除). But if Westerners were able to break themselves of the habit, why not the Chinese?

  「读书笔记」

  吐痰大多与吸烟有关,(Spitting was mostly associated with smoking)二者都被妇女斥为陋习。(both denounced by women as bad habits)每一次我看见痰盂,(spittoon)就会为那些每天都要清洗痰盂的家庭主妇悲叹。(I felt sorry for the poor housewife who had to clean it out every day)我还记得,学校里的男孩子们在开始偷偷吸烟的年龄也开始随地吐痰,(that schoolboys would start to spit at the same age as they took to smoking on the sly)以显示他们已经是成人,已经成为粗悍的小伙子。(just to show what grown-ups and tough guys they were)

  看到sorry,大家头脑中出现的第一个意思可能就是“抱歉”,是的,当不小心碰到别人说句I'm sorry.走到那里都不会错。不过可别以为它只有这一个意思,别以为美国为“误炸”中国驻南斯拉夫大使馆一事feel sorry是出于“歉意”,因为feel sorry for…完全没有道歉的意思,它是指“为……而感到难过”。(上文中的句子,就是这种用法。)比如:

  Tina felt sorry for Pat; she seemed so lonely.
  Tina为Pat感到难过,她看起来太孤单了。

  另外,be sorry to…句型和feel sorry类似,后面常跟动词原形。比如,同样是表达“为你母亲感到难过”的意思,用两种句式分别说出来就是:

  I feel sorry for your mother.我为你妈妈感到难过。
  I'm sorry to hear that your mother is ill.听到你妈妈生病了我很难过。

  在中世纪的欧洲,(In the European Middle Ages)允许人们将痰吐在桌子底下,(it was permitted to spit under the table)但决不可以将痰“远射”到桌子的另一边;(but never across it)站着的时候,可以把痰吐在地上,(one could spit on the ground)并立即用脚蹭了。(and immediately rub out the sputum with one's foot)在19世纪的工厂、医院候诊室和理发馆,人们容忍随地吐痰,(in 19th-century factories, hospital waiting rooms and barber shops was tolerated)“你让他们把痰吐到哪儿呢?(Where do you want them to spit?)吐到他们的衣服兜里吗?”这就是人们当时的态度。

  你看,西方国家也有他们的吐痰历史,(the West has its own history of spitting)他们付出了时间,付出了努力,才根除了这一陋习。(which it took time and effort to eradicate)如果说西方人能够与这种陋习决裂,(if Westerners were able to break themselves of the habit)难道中国人就不能?(why not the Chinese)

  「句型留言板」

  今天,我们来学一句表达“偷偷摸摸地”意思的句型,on the sly.其中,sly意思是“狡猾的、狡诈的”意思,但放在sly smile/look中,意思稍有不同,比如:

  A slow sly smile was creeping around the corners of his mouth.
  他的嘴角慢慢露出了诡秘的微笑。

  They exchanged sly looks and smiles.
  他们交换会意的眼色和微笑。

  接着看On the sly,它的英文解释是:secretly, especially when you are doing something that you should not do,需要注意的是,它是非正式使用的短语,只适合在口语或朋友之中使用。来看几个例子:

  She is having an affair with her Japanese teacher on the sly.
  她和她的日文老师偷偷有了恋情。

  He's been drinking whiskey on the sly for thirty years.
  他暗中偷喝威士忌酒已有三十年了。

  When she thought no one was looking she opened the cupboard and took a few sweets on the sly.
  当她觉得没人看见时,她打开壁橱偷偷拿了几块糖。

  今天的节目里,我们学的是feel sorry for(为……感到难过)的用法和句型on the sly(偷偷摸摸地),下次节目,再教大家更多更实用的英语知识!See you next time!

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