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高考书面表达怎样运用复杂结构和高级词汇
更新:2012-11-12 16:21 作者:jessica 来源:未知 点击:1 次  

近几年的高考《考试说明》中,关于高考英语书面表达评分标准第五档(很好)中有这样一段话:"应用了较多的语法结构和词汇;语法结构或词汇方面有些许错误,但为尽力使用较复杂结构或较高级词汇所致。"这就是说,学生仅运用基础的词汇和基本的句型,不能体现出较强的语言运用能力,即使表达无语法错误,也不能得高分;相反有些错误,目的在有意识地使用复杂结构或较高级词汇,也不扣分,仍属于最高档次。高考把写作要求提到了这样一个高度,有利于反映学生的水平层次,有利于指导教学。原来"要点完整,语言无误,行文连贯,表达清楚"的标准就落后了。
 

  在平时的教学中,训练最多的,学生们也最习惯的是五种基本句型:①主语+谓语;②主语+谓语+宾语;③主语+谓语+间接宾语;④主语+谓语+间接宾语+直接宾语;⑤主语+谓语+宾语+补足语。用这些句型组织的句子单一、无生气,不能给人一种含金量高的审美享受。客观形势对我们提出了高难度的要求,我们怎样才能对书面表达进行科学的操作?怎样才能控制写作呢?本文拟就这一课题进行讨论,希望能给学生以启迪,调动积极性,开拓思维,培养创新精神。

  首先,在整篇文章中,避免只使用一两个句型,要灵活运用各种语法结构,使文章有声有色。

  一、改变时态

  例:The bell is ringing now.(一般)

  There goes the bell! (高级)

  二、改变语态

  例:People suggest that the conference be put off.(一般)

  It is suggested that the conference be put off. (高级)

  三、使用不定式

  例:He is so kind that he can help me.(一般)

  He is so kind as to help me.(高级)

  四、使用过去分词

  例:①She walked out of the lab and many students followed her.(一般)

  Followed by many students, she walked out of the lab.(高级)

  ②Once it is seen, it can never be forgotten.(一般)

  Once seen, it can never be forgotten.(高级)

  五、使用V-ing形式

  例:①When he arrives, please give me an e-mail.(一般)

  On arriving/his arrival, please give me an e-mail.(高级)

  ②If the weather permits, I'll come tomorrow.(一般)

  I'll come tomorrow, weather permitting.(高级)

  六、使用名词性从句

  例:①It disappointed everybody that he didn't turn up.(一般)

  The fact that he didn't turn up disappointed everybody.(高级)

  ②I happened to have met him.(一般)

  It happened that I had met him.(高级)

  ③To his surprise, the little girl knows so many things.(一般)

  What surprises him is that the little girl knows so many things.(高级)

  七、使用定语从句

  例:The girl is spoken highly of. Her composition was well written.(一般)

  The girl whose composition was well written is spoken highly of.(高级)

  八、使用状语从句

  例:①I won't believe what he says.(一般)

  No matter what he says, I won't believe.(高级)

  ②If you come back before six o'clock, you can go out.(一般)

  You can go out on condition that(provided that) you come back before six o'clock.(高级)

  ③If she doesn't agree, what shall we do?(一般)

  Supposing that she doesn't agree, what shall we do?(高级)

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